Thursday, October 31, 2019

L'Oreal Global Marketing Strategy Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5500 words

L'Oreal Global Marketing Strategy - Case Study Example Head-quartered in the Paris commune of Clichy, France, the L’Oreal Group is the world’s largest cosmetics and beauty company. It has established activities in the field of cosmetics, focused on hair-color, skin-care, sun fortification, make-up, fragrances and hair-care. It is vigorous in the dermatological as well as pharmaceutical fields. In the United States, it is the paramount nanotechnology copy-right holder. According to a case study in the year 2005, the L’Oreal group, whose worth was $18.89 billion, was declared as the largest and the most successful cosmetics company round the globe, with more than seventeen international hallmarks (Case Study, 2005). Moreover, Business Week Inter-band survey ranked L’Oreal on the 49th position in August 2004, since, its brands were valued at $5902 million. L’Oreal extended its business in 150 countries by putting up on sale a wide range of make-up, fragrances, hair and skin care products to both men and women. As noted by Morais, L’Oreal sets itself apart from other brands just because of its reliability over time since it merges the double-digit top-line growth of a hot technology company with the bottom-line comforts of a well-run bank (Morais, 2000). 2. The Marketing Process L’Oreal finds itself in the situation of the most prosperous hallmark as it serves as the basis for identifying opportunities in order to satisfy the unaccomplished customer needs and requirements.... The mission of L'Oreal Group aspires to bring to reality the urge for men and women to look beautiful and aesthetic with time. This mission has always been of prime significance in for the company. As far as the marketing investments are considered, although 90 percent of the investments are accounted for by the investment in brand contacts, until now there hasn't been any tool which allows the managers to identify, a consumer perspective, the most efficacious set of contacts in which to invest. However, L'Oreal Group has described a tool which empowers the brand owners and marketers to identify and select the crucial contacts which are relevant for a particular brand. Moreover, in order to integrate across these key contact points, L'Oreal delivers brand experience through a relevant and pertinent set of consumer brand which encounters at a minimum cost, but with maximal impact. Moreover, it focuses on the metrics which can be used to inform a variety of significant decisions in the context of managing brand contacts. The essential marketing principles make it accessible for any business to survive in the market in an efficacious way as it encourages the businessmen to apply them to aspects of their daily lives as well (Jobber, 2007). In context of the first element of its marketing process, it is the company's distinct expertise of beauty that exists for the reason that it believes in beauty which is all the more unique and diversified that any

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Rugby Football Union Essay Example for Free

Rugby Football Union Essay With sport gaining increasing esteem, and spreading largely into university, the first sets of national rules came about through the Oxbridge melting pot with the Football Association (1863) and the Rugby Football Union (1871). The combination of Oxford and Cambridge university students comprised standardized rules and this further development undoubtedly helped expand sport in Britain. Increased participation by lower classes in the 19th century soon led to the questioning of middle class social control. The growth of professionalism resulted in a series of disputes between both classes with regards to sporting interests.   With regards to boxing, the changes have been remarkable with the core principles still continuing throughout the 19th century. For example, in 1867 the Marques of Queensberry Rules were drafted and introduced fixed time periods for rounds of three minutes and a one minute recovery period. There was also the beginning of gloves and a qualified referee to ensure a fair fight. Another change was in the location of bouts. After 1880, fights began taking place in designated arenas, with proper rings including ropes and canvases unlike the man made circle of spectators that previously made the ring.  Furthermore, there was the classification of weight divisions, formed around 1890 by athletic clubs. The original weight classes of light or heavyweight were then joined by four other categories; bantamweight, featherweight, welterweight and middleweight. In theory, the finely calibrated division were created to prevent mismatches; in practice, they have the felicitous effect of creating many more champions and many more title shots'(John Sugden Boxing and Society pg 31).  However, the continuity of boxing in the 19th century still included the main principal of inflicting a sufficient amount of physical damage to an opponent to win a bout. Outside the ring, gambling was still rife in the sport with potentials of big winnings if the higher class folk such as lords had good participants fight for them. Another aspect of continuity in boxing was the environment in which boxers fought in. The fighters in the 19th century were still surrounded by rowdy spectators which created a sense of hostility around the setting. Lastly, the social aspect of boxing remained within the sport. The working class men saw boxing as an outlet from the hard shifts undergone at the factories and could enjoy a social drink. With regards to horse racing, there were many changes within the 19th century. The variety of races were expanded and specific roles were assigned for certain people on the race course e.g. starters, judges and bookmakers.  Jarvie, G (2006) explains how the sport has developed after the 1800s. With the rail link leading to increased transport, came larger attendances at races, allowing for jockeys to travel about in order to compete elsewhere which is how Horne. J; Tomlinson, A and Whannel, G (1999) refer to the development of the characteristics of horse racing through the nature of the modernisation of 19th century Britain. An aspect of continuity in horse racing is gambling which is a key role within English horse racing. Gambling in horse racing has been rife since the beginning due to the large financial and economical profits that gambling provides to the British public and society.  Another point of continuity in horse racing in the 19th century is that it was the highest spectator sport within Britain, with the annual race being a large social event for many towns, merging all social classes together. Another change is in the equality of horse racing. Initially, in horse racing, the upper classes retained jockeys to ride on their behalf (Barry, 2002: p 5) due to the costs of maintaining the horses, travel expenses and entry fees. Kay, J and Vamplew, W (2003: p 128) stated that, there was an equality of aim to organise and win races but an inequality of means which divide the sport and its participants into discrete zones of competition. Furthermore, racing declared to, promote intercourse between different classes of society (Vamplew, W 1976: p 130) in order to provide equal opportunity and since there were no set rules prior to 1797, the 19th century was vital to horse racing, providing the Rules Concerning Horse Racing in General. These were followed by amendments made by the jockey club.  The 19th century brought an improved standard upon horse racing with time trials, improved diets and fluid retention along with sweating and purging and the first record of a horse race was made in 1842 in the Racing Calendar due to the improvement of literacy. Additionally, with British society rapidly altering with the industrial revolution, horse racing in the 19th century provided increased police supervision and protection to maintain order and set an example to society.  The new middle class also had a defining impact upon the change and continuity of sport in the 19th century. The population grew fourfold in the 19th century and, it was in the public schools that older ball games and athletic activities were re-invented and turned into modern sports. (Holt, R, 2001: p 75) Rugby came from the Rugby School; where Thomas Arnold was influential, and his students went on to spread the sport of rugby throughout the educational system in the 1850s. The game rugby, a strictly amateur sport, started with the simple rule of allowing a player to run with a ball if he caught it on the fly or on the first bounce. Formed in 1872 the Rugby Union initially consisted of teams with 20 players but was then cut down to 15 in 1875. Games were won by go als alone; however tries and penalties were added in 1877 as a scoring system which continues today. Brasch (1986) explains how Rugby league which can be traced back to the 1871, attracting large numbers of players and crowds from the working classes. With such a rapid growth in the sport came a fear of loss of control by the Rugby Football Union and an eventual split formed the Northern Rugby Football Union in 1895. There first action was to impose the payment of players and then gradually changed the rules with the abolition of the lineout and the value of goals was changed to two points. However, the sport maintained the fair play initiative and same method of scoring and purpose within the game. The strength of the men playing the sport epitomised muscular Christianity and embodied British society.  It is clear to see how the game of rugby impacted upon the latter stages of the 19th century. With vast change and rapid growth it is clear to see that compared to sport in the early 19th century it had begun to mature and cement its place amongst British society. The back streets were no longer areas of play, alcohol was controlled in order to maintain society and schoolyards were helping to increase participation along with the formation of new sports. The educational system was profound upon sport in 19th century Britain. It was not until 1890 when Baron de Coubertin revisited the Rugby School where Thomas Arnold was the headmaster, did his dream to revive the Olympics and globalise sport come true. He saw how sporting principles in British schools, muscular Christianity and athleticism were a good way to re-build the youth of France after the defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. His take on sport in Britain drove him to form the International Olympic Committee in 1894. In conclusion, sport within Britain in the 19th century evidently grew along with growth of the United Kingdom and the change from small towns to large industrial cities was like the change from early 19th century football to the rationalisation and formation of professionalism and the Football Association. The festivals and past times of playing sports in any street were given a purpose and designated area in the 19th century. The United Kingdoms initial reluctance to teach sport in schools was eventually turned around and seen as a perfect way to promote healthy living. Not only did sport in 19th century Britain create much change, much of its continuity is evident through the peoples passion to not let work control their life and pursue sporting events even though sometimes it wasnt in their free time. Bibliography Barry, T. (2002) Advanced PE for Edexcel (Limited Edition) Harcourt Education Limited, Heinemann and London.  Brasch, R. (1986) How Did Sports Begin? (edition published in 1990) Tynron Press, Stenhouse, Dumfriesshire.  Kay, J and Vamplew, W (2003)

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Mpact Of Facebook On Consumer Buying Marketing Essay

Mpact Of Facebook On Consumer Buying Marketing Essay There has been a noticeable change in the technological developments and innovation in the last few years. Undoubtedly, technology plays an important part in our lives. Most of people depend on the internet in most of their daily lives such as sending emails, searching for information; communicate with their family and friends, reading the latest news and so on. That development in technology reaches different sectors like business organizations, academic sectors, and governmental fields. In time where technology plays a great role in peoples lives, marketers are doing their best to take any chance that could bring consumers to their products and services. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, researchers predicted that the internet would alter the relationship between consumers and marketing organization (Lord, 2000; Hamel and Sampler,1998). Ward and his colleagues in 1998 predicted that in the first quarter of the twenty first century, the main channel for shopping for most consumers would be the interactive technologies (Ward et al, 1998). De Kare-Silver (2000) discusses the same idea that this technology will go with consumers need to visit shops, as it will make it easy for people to buy their needs any time without going to the actual place for these products. Many business companies that provide services or physical goods believe that using the electronic resources in their marketing is vital to their success. Porter (2001) recom mends that if companies want to remain competitors, they have to rely on technology. Using technology in marketing allows brands and companies to interact with its customers in individual basis as it provides immediate and quick interact without time limitation (Allan and Chudry, 2000). One type of technology that people and marketers depend on is social networking sites. In these social sites, people usually communicate with each other and during these conversations, they send direct messages to each other without noticing that. The number of people who use these sites are increasing day by day. In the United States around 55.6 million people have used these social sited daily in 2009 (Ostrow, 2009). Globally, Facebook, one of the main social sites, accounts for 750.000.000 registrations, Twitter has 200.000.000 followers (Qualman, 2011). In business sector, these social sites play an important role in consumers purchasing behavior. In these sites, people usually share opinion and purplish information about their view on brands they buy and services they use (Jones, 2010). Consumers use to recommend a brand or marketing organization to friends and followers. In some case, fans of a specific brands establish a page in these social sites where they write their opinion about this brand, upload and download photos of the product that the brand sell. Investigating the relation between these social sites and consumer purchasing behavior is a new trend that encourages researcher to search about. That relation affects both sides, marketers and consumers. For marketers, it helps to create a strong relationship with customers, developing a new idea for new product, and answering common daily questions from consumers (Dà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¸Silva et al, 2011). Moreover, in investigating the effect of these sites on consumers purchasing behavior, some studies have been made to find out the relation between these sides. Most of these studies improve that there is a positive relation between social sites and consumer purchasing behavior that the majority of people believe in this statements and support that by some cases where they rely on these social sites in some stages in their purchasing process such as searching for information and evaluating their choices (Constantinides and Fountain, 2008). Social media usage is growing rapidly amongst marketing professionals and organisations and fast becoming a new outlet that can potentially be used to help increase customers interest in a product or service. As it becomes widespread it brings about involving customers and facilitating exchange of information bringing about shift in consumer behaviour. Through social media, information, enticing advertisement are made available to consumers easily watch and read and at the same time allowing consumers to post their own opinions and sharing it with friends. For many brands, social media appears as a way to reach new customers and to reflect their feelings and this explains the reason for which many companies are currently working on developing Social Strategies to outline the degree of interactivity that they want to have with their customers that will help consumers to make a buying decision. Successful firms use consumer attitudes and behaviors to segment markets and design marketing strategies. Today, however, consumer trust in corporations is declining while the influence of online communities on buyer behavior is growing. Social media platforms have completely changed the nature of the interaction between brands and their customers, directly impacting upon the contemporary consumer decision process. Laurens (2010) argued that while social media is not the silver bullet that some pundits claim it to be, it is an extremely important and relatively low cost touch point that has a direct impact on sales and positive word of mouth and supporting this argument Glynn and David (2009) said that Companies not actively engaging the social media are missing a huge opportunity of saying something to consumers intentionally or unintentionally about how willing they are to engage on consumers terms. Therefore, its necessary for retailers to understand how social media is affecting current consumers and how they are going to react. During the economic downturn, more and more companies have reduced their communication budget but they have increased expenses for social media by 30%. It is now a priority for big companies but they need also to change their global marketing strategy. It is also important to reach the right customer at the beginning of a social media strategy because opinion leaders, such as bloggers, are the ultimate key to a brands success (The Conversation Group 2012). As the marketing power of social media grows, it no longer makes sense to treat it as an experiment. According to Tamba (2012) Social media has a big impact on how people shop. A quarter of all purchases of FMCGs are influenced by exposure to one form of social media or another and this proportion is growing. Shoppers are weaving their interaction with social and mobile marketing into their everyday lives: As a result, big brands are increasing their social media investment. Social media can influence both impulse purchases and reg ular shopping habits when it comes to FMCGs. The trick is to understand where, when and how customers want to interact with your brand, and with your products. Social marketing for regular purchases is about strengthening and deepening the customers connection with the brand. Impulse buys are also increasingly mediated by social media especially now that so many consumers can access Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest from their mobile phones. 1.1 Statement of Problem. Most often than never, companies do not benefit from social media in a way they should have benefited from it due to their lack of strategic efforts to managing it and measure it success. Through media hypes that emphasis the ease of achieving success with social media, many companies have the believe that what they need to do to achieve success with Facebook is by just launching Facebook page and such companies get disappointed when they see no activities occurring on the page and thus they abandon the page. Common mistakes companies make is devoting a little time for social media and measuring it success on whether audience is conversing or not about their brands on their social media. Nevertheless, companies make mistakes by believing they are in total control of conversations about their companies, brands products or services on social media and they spend heavily on PR to hype their newest hires and new products whereas they forget that social media platform is all about speakin g with people but not at people and more of a community of audience that discuss about companies, their products, services or brands in a way they feel they benefit them or do not (Evans 2010). 1.2 Purpose of Study This research is carried out with the aim of appraising the impact of Facebook on Consumer buying Behaviour in the UK Grocery Market with Tesco Plc as a case study. This is to determine the effect of social media (Facebook) on the consumer buying behaviour of groceries in the UK. 1.3. Research Question What are the impacts of Facebook on consumer buying behaviour in the UK Grocery Market? 1.4 Research Objectives Following from the above highlighted aim, the following objectives have been set to achieve the above aim and followed by the research questions. To identify Facebook usage patterns among UK consumers in grocery market. Evaluate how Facebook effectively changes consumers attitude towards groceries. Investigating and evaluating the role of Facebook website as influencers on Tesco customers in UK at stages of buying decision-making process. Identify if Facebook is the social medium that has the greatest impact on consumer buying pattern of Tesco in UK. Recommendation on how Tesco should use Facebook to encourage consumers to buy their products. 1.5 The Significance of the Research This research work was undertaken to take a critical look at the impacts of a social media called Facebook on consumer buying behaviour in the UK grocery market where Tesco was used as a case study. This research therefore became imperative to undertake as a result of a noticeably new development in the UK market that aroused the interest on the issue surrounding Facebook impact on consumer buying behaviour in the UK and a well known popular FMCG trading company in UK was chosen as a case study to identify these effects of Facebook on consumer buying pattern in the UK Grocery market. Furthermore, the impact of Facebook on consumer buying pattern in grocery markets has not been looked into by researchers thus leaving a gap to identify whether social media (Facebook) really has a significant impact on consumer buying patterns in the grocery market apart form other commodities. Nevertheless, this research has also been undergone due to the keen interest the researcher has, following up to date on the social media impacts on marketing activities in this 20th century and it ability to completely erode the traditional system of marketing communication. 1.6. Scope and Limitations of the study. In investigating the impact of Facebook on consumer buying pattern in UK grocery markets, this study was only limited to Facebook which is not the only social media that consumers use to purchase groceries. The research is not applicable to other social media platforms. Furthermore, the case study adopted was only limited to one of the FMCG companies in UK and thus do not provide a sufficient information about the impact of Facebook on the consumer buying pattern in UK grocery markets 1.7 Overview The overall structure of this research consist of 5 chapters, each dwelling on a specific aspect of the topic under review This first chapter comprises of the introduction, research problem, purpose of the study, research question and objectives of the study. The rational and overview of the proposal have also been covered in this part. The literature review covers the chapter 2 of this research. This part reviews critically the impacts of social media on the buying pattern of consumers in the UK grocery markets from scholarly perspective. Conceptual framework also featured in this part of the research. Chapter 3 focuses on the methodology used in the entire research processes. The research method adopted both quantitative using closed questionnaire and qualitative method using case study approach will be adopted to collect data (Mixed method). The fourth chapter dealt with the analysis and findings of the research while then fifth chapter focused on summary of conclusion and the implications of this research. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.0 Introduction The Literature review in chapter 2 will provide discussions from published information and an account of what has been published on the topic of this study. It explains body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to Impact of Facebook on Consumer buying Behaviour in the UK Grocery Market. In this chapter, various textbooks, articles, journals, blogs, dailies and websites were consulted to obtain related information, thoughts and quotes of various writers, authors and scholars. 2.1. Consumer Buying Behaviour In marketing, deep understanding of the behaviour of marketing is a very important tool for business success. Consumer buying behaviour is all about the determination of how consumers make decisions on the product or service they want to buy and the factors that are responsible for this decision. According to studies conducted in UK, 56% out of 11,000 new products that are launched by 77 companies in the UK are present after 5 years of new product launch. Also, studies revealed that only 8% of new products concept from 112 leading companies reached that market where 83% where unable to meet marketing objectives. Consumer buying behaviour tends to study these reasons why companies need to have a deep understanding of why consumers make the purchase they do and the factors that influence their decision to purchase (Hitesh, 2010). Because consumers are the drivers of marketing, the need to formulate well suitable marketing plans that that will critically examine consumer behavioural att ributes and needs, lifestyles and purchase process in order to make a nearly perfect marketing mix decisions. Studying what consumers buy, the reason they buy, the way they buy, time they buy, the location and frequency at which they buy are key things to understand when undertaken the study of consumer behaviour (Hitesh, 2010). Wayne et al., 2008, defined consumer buying behaviour is the reflection of the totality of consumers decisions regarding acquisition, consumption, and disposition of products and services, activities, people, ideas and experiences. Also, Dibb and simkin (2001) defined the buying behaviour of consumers as an act and decision making process of people that are involved purchasing and using products or services for personal or household consumptions. Theoretical approaches have been used by researchers to have an in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour and these approaches have been inherent in 3 psychological orientations; Reinforcement theory, Cognitive theory and Freuds psycho-analytical theory (Fill,2006), with the most popular and current approach to consumer behaviour out of the 3 approaches been the cognitive theory (Berkman and Gilson, 1986), where cognitive theory states that people use and process information they derived from internal and external sources to identify pro blems and make decisions. The major elements outlined by the cognitive theory for problem solving among consumers in their buying behaviour have been perception, learning, attitudes, and personality (Fill, 2006). Consumer behaviour goes beyond the method by which consumers purchase tangible products like groceries, clothing and automobiles but rather, consumer buying behaviour also involve consumers use of services, experiences, activities, and ideas such as going to see a General Practitioner (GP), signing up for a gym class, donating to charity, voting for politicians, seeing movies featured by certain actors etc. Consumer behaviour was also expressed as activities people get involved in when collecting, utilising and disposing products and services (Blackwell et al.,2001) or environmental factors that are aimed at creating actual behaviour (Jim,2008). Four factors namely; psychological core, process of decision making, consumers culture and consumer behaviour outcomes have been identified to affect the buying behaviour of consumers (Wayne et al., 2008) while Haydon (2009) grouped factors that affect consumer buying behaviour into 3 group namely external influences (firms marketing effort a nd consumers culture), internal processes (psychological processes and decision making) and post decision processes. Choices are been made by consumers daily and buying behaviour is said to be influenced by the characteristics (cultural, social and psychological) and the decision process that buyers make (Khursia, 2012). Furthermore, several research have been undertaken to identify the buying behaviour of consumer through social psychology and personality (Ajzen, 1987), marital status and responsibilities (Goldman and Johansson, 1978), and consumer loyalty (Suen and Wei, 2009). 2.11 Psychology of buyers Psychology of buyers must be determined by manufacturers through identification of buyers need when marketing a product to target group of customers. Buyers most often look for sense of safety and belonging, although other customers want to gain self esteem in the presence of their peers. The perception of a product by buyers must be understood when providing information about the product to buyers as there are possibilities that buyers could interpret information provided by buyers about a product on the basis of their previous beliefs and knowledge, although learning about such product may change behavior of buyers (Jeff 2012). 2.12 Behaviour of consumers Also, buyers could also buy products depending on their personalities and lifestyles. For example individual buyer that seeks to life a healthy lifestyle could go for organic foods while avoiding foods that are sun-tanned. In family situation, buying decisions are often based on what buyers perceived to be best for their family. Deep awareness on who makes decisions for family product must be understood by marketers. Among newly weds with no children, purchasing is the product of decision made by husband and wife, while the stay at home parent makes the decision in a family with young children (Jeff 2012). 2.13 Characteristics of Consumer Social class and culture up to some extent determines types, quality and quantity of products that buyers buy or use. In clothing, social class may determine the type of clothes buyers buy. Culture also greatly impacts on food where deep-fried food may be easier to sell in the south than in California. The buying process begins with a step where consumers recognise a need, or a disparity between what they possess and what they need to buy to change their condition. Also, decision to buy a product can also be based on elements such as packaging, payment methods and the features and of the product (Jeff 2012). Firms Marketing Efforts 1. Product 2. Promotion 3. Price 4. Place The Consumers Culture 1. Religion 2. Ethnicity 3. Reference Groups 4. Social class Psychological Processes 1. Motivation 2. Perception 3. Attitude 4. Knowledge Decision Making 1. Problem recognition 2.Information Search 3. Judgement 4. Decision Post -decision Processes 1. Purchase 2. Post-purchase behaviour Figure 1: Model of Consumer Behaviour 2.2 Social media Social media is a set of applications such as Twitter, LinkedIn, and Facebook etc built to operate on Web 2.0 platform which enables the creation and sharing of information created by users that are known as user-generated content (Kaplan and Haenlin, 2010). Social media has been expressed to be the new millennium medium of communication across the world with the most popular of all been Facebook, twitter and LinkedIn. For example, Facebook as at June, 2012 was said to have a monthly active user of 750 million people and 1 billion active users were estimated to be on Facebook by the end of 2012, thus supporting the believe of many analyst that social media marketing will out rightly replace some forms of traditional marketing such as directing mail (Fuel oil news, 2012). Social network, one of the currently used platforms by social media is said to be a very diverse and big complex concept perceive to which its knowledge require a clear identification of its scope and coverage that f orms it boundaries (George, 2008). Tracy (2008) expressed that social media existence is inherent in the context of communities that are built of people where relations are been developed and nurtured through creation, sharing, engaging and commenting in content. Social media are online tools that provide access to users with identical interest to share information that is referred to as user generated account content while also learning from others, or network in an open process (Stepenson, 2011). According to Smith and Zee (2011), Social media has been opined to be an effective way of running business other than just an ordinary marketing tool, requiring both old and new companies to embed new culture of company wide support, systems and incentives where mindset of thinking relationships and not just sales or transaction marketing must be ensured. Social media has been further explained by Smith and Zee (2011) to look beyond short term sales but should enable the culture of sharin g and listening, channelling information into organisational system that alert companies into negative and positive comments, suggestions, complaints and new ideas that are beneficial for new product development, new advertisements, new discussions and promotions. Business managers are often faced with challenges of exploiting opportunities associated with the increasing availability of social media sites like Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn that is been dominated by 50% users alone in UK. Despite the fact that social media has become a very popular networks that is frequently used by consumers, while organisations are still struggling to understand and put it to use effectively (Nielsen 2010). However, despite the believe of many about the opportunities inherent in social media, some are still sceptical about its potentials due to an immense uncertainty about how it can be leveraged for a long term profits and returns as well as the ability to identify the fact that return on investment can be attributed to social media marketing efforts (Weinberg and Berger, 2010), Weinberg and David, 2005). Apart from social media exposing consumers to research and purchase considerations, social media has also provided platform through which consumers can a dvocate for the products and stores they so much valued and love (Jay, 2012). To gather information, consumers are now relying on social media to decide on which products to buy (Kozinets 2002) and the usage of social media by consumers for brand recognition, information about products and the opinion about product or service provider are most often influenced by the cultural background of consumers as consumers widely vary in their expectation of product and service quality (Donthu and Yoo 1998).Through social media, companies are offered the opportunities to understand the needs of their consumers and increase their level of satisfaction through proactive and timely response (Jay, 2012). 2.3 Usage pattern of Social media among consumers. No doubt, social media has gone through a significant transformation over years (Mangold and faulds, 2009). This significant transformation of social media and the extent to which consumers rely on social media to make purchasing decision led to the full awareness of the potentials of social media by marketers. Advent of social media has immensely changed the society, influencing consumers behaviour in terms of scanning for information on different social media to read other consumers view concerning products or services they want to purchase (Todaro, 2007). The traditional media has been greatly replaced by social networks and the awareness on social media opportunities seems unlimited as millions of Coca-cola fans on Facebook are declaring their love for the brand, most frequently viewed on YouTube been roller babies of Danones water brand Evian while thousands of consumers that patronise Starbucks work hand in hand with the brand to generate new ideas for their products. According to Trusvo et al., 2009, 1.54 billion dollars was said to have been used to implement and support social media communications in 2008 and as such, social media growths is getting quite unlimited as investment on social media are estimated to increase to 3 billion dollars in the year 2013 (Kozinets et al., 2010). 70% internet users have been discovered to trust judgements and evaluations of their fellow consumers on the social media platforms thus leaving brand generation and awareness at the mercy of social media users (Nielsen 2009). According to a survey conducted by Fishburn Hedges, more than third of UK consumers that constitute 36% are said to have engaged with companies brands through social media and this increase was driven by a common belief among 40% respondents that improving customer service is as a result social media when compared with just 7% of respondents that believed that social media has a negative impact on customer service. Furthermore, 68% of respondents that have engaged with brands through social media have believed that through social media, their concerns and their wishes have been made known to their products and service provider and more than 65% respondent expressed that social media gives them a better chance to communicate with companies(David, 2012). Fishburn_image_1 Figure 2: Usage pattern of social media among UK consumers (David, 2012). In the same vein, research conducted by YouGov Media, UK (2011) explained that the uptake and usage of social media services as a marketing tool remains favourably high among British public where Facebook is the social media site with a highest percentage of active users. 65% of online population in UK have Facebook with 95% of 16 to 20 years olds and 74% of 21-24 years old are frequently accessing Facebook social media site. The next social media site with the highest number of active users after Facebook is said to be YouTube that has 50% of all UK internet users while Twitter, Windows Live, LinkedIn, Google and Spotify have been surveyed to have 23%, 14%, 13%, 12% and 10% active online users respectively (YouGov,2012). Furthermore, study conducted among by Hiscox (2012) among entrepreneurs in UK found out that 57% of businesses use social media for marketing where 19% of these entrepreneurs use Facebook as their social media platform while 14% use linkedIn. The use of social media to support marketing efforts in UK is inherent in the fact that 53% of UK adults that use social networks follow a particular brands while 4 out of 5 internet users visit other social platforms as we as blogs. Also, in a study conducted by Jon (2011), 77% of UK 48.6 million adult were discovered to have an active Facebook profile, 15.5 million adult were investigated to be using Twitter account, 7.2 million adult use a photo sharing platform while 7.9 million UK adults use LinkedIn. Facebook was discovered to be the most popular UK social networking site with 77% of all UK users having an active Facebook profile where 80% women constitute the population of active Facebook user compared to 72% of men. How Businesses use Social Media Hiscox Insurance Figure 3: Usage pattern of social media among UK entrepreneurs (Hiscox 2012). Social Media Usage in UK infographic low res 2 Figure 4: Social Media usage pattern depending on age and gender (Jon 2011). Examining the study conducted by Dirk (2011) that proposed that the increase in the number of active user of social media was as a result of the advent of smartphones, investigated that social networks are accessed by more than half of UK users through their phones almost everyday, suggesting that overall, 35% of he UK mobile UK mobile phone population use social networks from their phones where over 44% of mobile phone users in UK are estimated to be smartphone users. uk_mobilesocialsept10-11-1 Figure 5: The Frequency of Social Networking site or Blog in UK (Dirk, 2011) 2.4. Changing consumers attitude through Social media Word of mouth has been found to be an effective means through which consumers buy products and services. Take for example an active user of Facebook with 15,000 followers finds a product valuable to him and thus recommends such product to his 15,000 followers on the social media sites and these followers also recommend the product to their followers and thus create a huge awareness for such brand through these social media medium. With the advent of social media, word of mouth and engagements which are effective means by which products are sold have been facilitated by social media. Years ago companys sale representatives only had the not less than 5 interactions a day but in the social media age, companies have increased their individual customer interactions to 100 or more (Joan et al., 2010). Favoured brands may be promoted by consumers through positive comments on social media like Facebook or twitter pages or could be through uploading the video clips about such brand on YouTube . In the same vein, when consumers are not satisfied with a particular product, consumers could use the brands social media to register their feelings of unsatisfaction about the companys product on the brands social media forum. Findings made by Dellarocas et al., 2007 found out that consumers look out for recommendations concerning products and proceed to buy such product via the traditional channel such as offline stores (Heil et al., 2010). Social media like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube etc are been used by consumers to serve as an evaluation forums where products quality or service reviewed by other consumers that have experience with such products or services are used as a determinant to determine whether such product or service would be purchased or not, and thus social media reduce uncertainty and improve efficiency of consumers online searches in products consumption process (Dwyer, 2007). Through social media, consumers have greatly influenced one another when maki ng purchasing decisions where consumers ask one another for advice on these social media platform, mimicking and observing one anothers decision and relying on these recommendations from others before purchases are made (Hasan 2008). In a study conducted by IBM in Europe, more than half of Social media users in Britain, France, Italy and even Germany often check social networks before they make decision on purchasing or not purchasing a particular good or service. 35% of active Facebook users are discovered to use Facebook page to consult people for advices about products and services. In 40% of the situation, consumers procure such product they do investigation on through the social media. Furthermore, studies have also proved that 56% of Facebook users that have become the follower of a particular brand are likely to recommend to their social network followers such brand they follow (ConversationGroup, 2012). According to MRY (Mr Young), during holiday sales, exchanges among frien ds, family and brands have a significantly direct influence on purchasing decision. Through Faceb

Friday, October 25, 2019

Nigger: Historical and Current Use Essay -- Language History Discourse

Nigger: Historical and Current Use â€Å"Nigger: it is arguably the most consequential social insult in American History, though, at the same time, a word that reminds us of ‘the ironies and dilemmas, tragedies and glories of the American experience’† (Kennedy 1). Harvard Law Professor Randall Kennedy’s book Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word is at the center of debate because of its controversy. It addresses questions among a diverse audience of students and scholars of all racial and ethnic backgrounds in its quest to discover how and why the word should or should not be used in modern day America. As a black American male, the word nigger conjures up within me hate, hostility, violence, oppression, and a very shameful and unfortunate part of American History. The word symbolizes the everlasting chains of a people plagued with hate and bondage simply because of skin color. For many black people, including myself, nigger is the most pejorative word in the English language. Even when compared to racial slurs like kike, honkey, cracker, wet back, spic, jungle bunny, pod, tarbaby, and white trash, nigger is noted as the worst insult in the English language. The word nigger suggests that black people are second class citizens, ignorant and less than human. While many blacks and whites agree that the word should not be censored from the English language, it certainly should not be used by all people because of its historical significance. For example, black militants believe whites should never use the word nigger. On the other hand, the word nigger has been â€Å"reclaimed† by black youths particularly in the hip-hop culture. These modern day teens claim that it is just a word and that people give words meaning rathe... ...f National Association of Black Journalist. (1999). Fall 1999. . Eastwood, Lauren. Personal Interview. 10 April. 2002. Glory. .Dir. Edward Zwick. Perf. Man Broderick, Morgan Freeman, Denzel Washington, Cary Elwes, Andre Brausher. Tri Star, I989. Kennedy, Randall. Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word. New York: Pantheon Books, 2002. Naylor, Gloria. â€Å"Mommy What Does ‘Nigger’ Mean?† New York Times. 20 Feb. 1986. Pilgrim, David. Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memoribilia. Fall 2002. . Saxon, Shani. VIBE Magazine. Fall 2002. . Thomas, Alex. Fall 2002. . White, Jackie. â€Å"Dealing with the N-Word.† Time Magazine. 2I Jan. 2002. Wickham, Dewayne. â€Å"Book Fails to Strip Meaning of ‘N’ Word.† USA Today. 2 Feb. 2002.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Capitalism Europe

Businessmen transformed economic activities by learning to take advantage of market conditions by alluding efficient networks of transportation and communication and by creating a system of regulating the price of a product based on supply and demand. 4. The institutions that supported early capitalism were banks and joint-stock companies such as the English East India Company and their Dutch counterpart. 5. The Dutch and English supported the growth of capitalism because the English East India Company and their Dutch counterpart were two large trading companies that spread the ideas of capitalism on a larger scale than ever before. . The Joint-stock companies set p by the ideas of capitalism and the English/Dutch would be authorized to conquer, explore, and colonize distant lands in search of commercial opportunities. Therefore, early capitalism developed in the context of Imperialism, as European peoples established fortified trading posts in Asia and colonial regimes in both South east Asia and the Americas. Imperial expansion was important to the spread of capitalism, since it enabled European merchants to get natural resources that would be distributed. 7.Crafts and guilds had fixed prices and wages and they regulated standards of quality. They did not seek to realize profits, therefore discouraging competition and resisted technological innovation. 8. The putting out system was system in which capitalist entrepreneurs delivered unfinished materials to rural households where the artisans would finish a part of the product in their homes (similar to an assembly line) and pass it on until the product was finished and then it was giving to the entrepreneurs, and then the artisans were paid for their labor. 9.The advantages of the putting out system were that because of the plethora of rural labor, entrepreneurs spent relatively title on wages and profited greatly. 10. The putting out system introduced large sums of money to the countryside which brought materi al benefits and disrupted the long-established patterns of rural life. The standard of rural life rose dramatically; households acquired more goods and rural people wore nicer clothes, ate better food, and drank better wine. Individuals had the opportunity to become wealth and stop relying on neighbors and family. Young adults and women began to earn their own incomes. 11.In Eastern Europe lacked cities so there was no alternative to working in the countryside, o landlords took advantage on this situation by forcing peasants to work under extremely harsh conditions whereas in Western Europe there were better working conditions and more cities. Western Europe was far better in comparison to Eastern Europe in the area of labor. 12. Capitalism posed moral challenges. Medieval theologians believed that profit-making was morally dangerous, since profiteers looked to their own advantage rather than the welfare of the larger community. The Church considered interest an unearned and immoral profit. 13.Adam Smith's response was that society loud prosper when individuals pursued their own economic interests. 14. Although Capitalism may not have necessarily caused changes in family life, it encouraged developments that helped to define the nature and role of the family. Capitalism favored the nuclear family; it offered opportunities doe independent families to increase their wealth. As these families became more important economically, their importance socially and emotionally increased. Love became more important in marriage (not simply strengthening alliances) and parents and their children became more important to family life.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on What Is Enlightenment

, enlightenment is the development of a society through there own rational thoughts and educated analysis. Kant feels that if we are going to free ourselves from tutelage then we must be able to use our freedom whenever we want. â€Å"One c a try to revolt but it’s without doubt going to fail. One can try to put an end to tutelage and then become the tutor themselves†(@@@@). This revolution will not lead to enlightenment, but rather lead to more tutelage. One ruler said that the coming about of enlightenment will only arrive if you, â€Å"Argue as much as you will, and about what you will, but obey!† (Kant 87). In short, this means you can argue but you can’t revolt. Kant seemed to take this into account when discussing what will bring about enlightenment. Kant states, â€Å"The public use of one's reason must always be free, and it alone can bring about enlightenment among mankind; the private use of reason may, however, often be very narrowly restricted , without otherwise hindering the progress of enlightenment. By the public use of one's own reason I understand the use that anyone as a scholar makes of reason before the entire literate world. I call the private use of reason that which a person may make in a civi... Free Essays on What Is Enlightenment Free Essays on What Is Enlightenment What is enlightenment? Immanuel Kant attempts to shed light on the meaning of enlightenment while writing the essay, â€Å"What is Enlightenment?†. This document was written in response to political and social changes brought about by King Frederick of Prussia. The goal of Kant’s essay was to discuss what the nature of enlightenment was. It also taught people how enlightenment can be brought about within the overall public. Kant explains that, â€Å"enlightenment is man’s release from his self-imposed immaturity† (Kant 85). Kant’s use of Immaturity seems to more in reference with the idea if self-imposed tutelage which is man’s lack of ability to have direction for himself, and needs a guardian or tutor. In other words, enlightenment is the development of a society through there own rational thoughts and educated analysis. Kant feels that if we are going to free ourselves from tutelage then we must be able to use our freedom whenever we want. â€Å"One c a try to revolt but it’s without doubt going to fail. One can try to put an end to tutelage and then become the tutor themselves†(@@@@). This revolution will not lead to enlightenment, but rather lead to more tutelage. One ruler said that the coming about of enlightenment will only arrive if you, â€Å"Argue as much as you will, and about what you will, but obey!† (Kant 87). In short, this means you can argue but you can’t revolt. Kant seemed to take this into account when discussing what will bring about enlightenment. Kant states, â€Å"The public use of one's reason must always be free, and it alone can bring about enlightenment among mankind; the private use of reason may, however, often be very narrowly restricted, without otherwise hindering the progress of enlightenment. By the public use of one's own reason I understand the use that anyone as a scholar makes of reason before the entire literate world. I call the private use of reason that which a person may make in a civi...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Stanley Tookie Williams †Death Penalty Case Study

Stanley Tookie Williams – Death Penalty Case Study Free Online Research Papers Crime is a major problem in our world today. Some people in our country live in fear that they will be the next victim of a crime; they could be robbed, raped, or even murdered. There are so many theories on how to stop crime. One of the theories is the use of the death penalty as a deterrent. There are a lot of issues that surround that idea that make the use of the death penalty just as bad as the accused committing murder. It is very contradictive, inconsistent, and unethical. Although some people believe that the death penalty deters crime, there are many arguments against it. For example, the costs are extremely high, racism is involved, and there are innocent people on death row to list a few. Stanley Tookie Williams is a great example of how the death penalty is unethical. He was the person responsible for creating the Crips gang in California back in the seventies. He was later charged with the death penalty for murdering three people. Over the course of 10 years, Tookie Williams, with the help of his supporter and friend Barbara Becnel, wrote eight childrens books all with the aim of stopping youngsters living a violent gang life. He also earned five Nobel peace prize nominations, a letter from President George W Bush commending him on his work, and a movie portraying his life called, simply, Redemption (Leithead). He was executed in December, 2005 by lethal injection. Some people believe that he deserved to die because even though he had so many accomplishments in prison, out of prison he was a monster. They didn’t believe that he was being genuine in his good deeds. Some people say that he is a success story because he turned his life around despite hi s surroundings. The system should have let him serve life in prison without the possibility of parole after all of his accomplishments because in this case he had turned his life around and instead of hurting others in society, he was helping society. Even though a great person like Stanley Williams was executed, the American public has long been favorably disposed toward capital punishment for convicted murderers, and that support continues to grow. In a 1981 Gallup Poll, two-thirds of Americans voiced general approval for the death penalty. That support rose to 72% in 1985, to 76% in 1991, and to 80% in 1994. Although these polls need to be interpreted with extreme caution, it is clear that there are few issues on which more Americans agree: in at least some circumstances, death is seen as a justifiable punishment (Radelet, Akers). Part of the support for capital punishment comes from the belief that the death penalty is legitimate. This justification suggests that murderers should be executed for retributive reasons: murderers should suffer, and the retributive effects of life imprisonment are insufficient for taking a life. While such views are worthy of debate, no empirical research can tell us if the argument is correct or incorrect. Empirical studies can neither answer the question of what specific criminals (or non-criminals) deserve, nor settle debates over other moral issues surrounding capital punishment. In some people eyes the moral issues of capital punishment don’t outweigh the public concern with violent crime. It is generating strong support for the death penalty. Thirty-eight states have passed capital punishment laws in the past 20 years. One reason for skepticism about the death penaltys value as a deterrent is the never-ending parade of homicides from convenience- store shootings to high-profile crimes of passion. A much-watched case involved Susan V. Smith of Union, S.C. She made national headlines when she told police that an armed black man had commandeered her car and driven off with her two little boys. But nine days later, Smith was charged in the childrens drowning deaths. According to police, Smith confessed to strapping the youngsters into their car seats and letting the car roll down a boat ramp to the bottom of a lake (Worsnop). The death penalty will not deter crimes of passion because in the heat of the moment people that kill do not think about the co nsequences. That shows that the people that believe that the death penalty is a deterrent is incorrect because people still kill even if there is a possibility that they will receive the death penalty. Some people receive the death penalty for crimes that they did not commit. Having someone serve life in prison instead of the death penalty gives that person time to prove their innocence. The debate over erroneous convictions has increased in recent years because DNA testing now allows inmates to prove their innocence years after their convictions. Former death row inmate Aaron Patterson is one of seventeen wrongfully convicted men freed in Illinois, the only state with a death penalty moratorium. The American Bar Association has called for a nationwide moratorium on executions, citing documented problems in capital trials and sentencing such as racial discrimination, inadequate legal representation and other constitutional violations. The advent of DNA testing - which has been credited with â€Å"exonerating† more than 160 prison inmates over the last 15 years, including 14 men on various states death rows - has focused attention on using new technology to prevent execut ions of innocent defendants (Jost). State officials disagree that this new technology has proven that innocent people have been executed.. Law enforcement groups emphasize in particular that anti-death penalty groups have yet to document a case in the modern era of someone who was executed and later proven conclusively to have been innocent of the crime. Prosecutors and law enforcement supporters, however, say the high court should maintain strict standards for state prisoners to meet before asking federal judges in effect to give them a second trial. â€Å"If youre going to retry every capital case, youre going to have an even more inefficient system than you have now,† says Barry Latzer, a professor at City University of New Yorks John Jay College of Criminal Justice (Jost). If there is speculation that there are innocent people in prison, there should not be a death penalty. One life being taken over a wrong conviction is enough to end it. The price of an innocent life is far more than trying to prove th at the death penalty works. It price of execution is far more than to keeping him or her in prison for life. A recent New Jersey Policy Perspectives report concluded that the states death penalty has cost taxpayers $253 million since 1983, a figure that is over and above the costs that would have been incurred had the state utilized a sentence of life without parole instead of death. From a strictly financial perspective, it is hard to reach a conclusion other than this: New Jersey taxpayers over the last 23 years have paid more than a quarter billion dollars on a capital punishment system that has executed no one, the report concluded. Michael Murphy, former Morris County, NJ prosecutor, remarked: If you were to ask me how $11 million a year could best protect the people of New Jersey, I would tell you by giving the law enforcement community more resources. Im not interested in hypotheticals or abstractions, I want the tools for law enforcement to do their job, and $11 million can buy a lot of tools (Death Pen alty Focus). This country hates paying irrelevant taxes; they should be taking this information into account. There is no justification for paying taxes for something that is not being used. There are some justifications for the death penalty. One of those is that the death penalty saves innocent lives by preventing convicted murderers from killing again. Some sense of the risk here is the fact that of roughly 52,000 state prison inmates serving time for murder, an estimate 810 had previously been convicted of murder and had killed 821 persons following those convictions. Executing each of these inmates after the first murder conviction would have saved the lives of more than 800 persons (Cassell). But having the people serve life sentences could’ve served the same purpose of preventing murder. Politics, quality of legal counsel and the jurisdiction where a crime is committed are more often the determining factors in a death penalty case than the facts of the crime itself. The death penalty is a lethal lottery: of the 22,000 homicides committed every year approximately 150 people are sentenced to death (Death Penalty Focus). Most of the 150 people were Africa n American, which shows that the system is unethical and displays racism. Racism in the imposition of the death penalty has been widely documented over the years. From roughly 1930 to the late 1960s, 49 percent (1,630 out of 3,334) of people executed for murder were African American even though they only made up between 9 and 10 percent of the total U.S. population during this 30-year period. In the early 1970s the courts first challenged the constitutionality of the death penalty because of this probable racial bias. Specifically, the Supreme Court case Furrnan v. Georgia (1972) ruled that the death penalty was cruel and unusual punishment because of the arbitrary and discriminatory manner in which it was imposed. Race discrimination was at the center of the critique of the death penalty and something the post- Furman reforms were designed to remedy. Despite the implementation of death penalty reforms, race discrimination continues to influence the application of the death penalty. Research has found that racism manifests itself in two ways: 1) defendan ts who kill white victims are more likely to be given the death penalty compared to those who kill blacks; and 2) black defendants (regardless of the race of victim) are more likely to receive the death penalty compared to white defendants (Bordt). The idea that the death penalty can stop crime would not be the big debate that it is if there wasn’t discrimination in the justice system. Justice John Paul Stevens has become the latest member of the Supreme Court to voice strong concerns off the bench about the way that death penalty cases are handled in the United States. In a speech to the American Bar Association on Aug. 6, Stevens noted the â€Å"substantial number† of erroneously imposed death sentences and then suggested the need to re-examine jury-selection and sentencing procedures to eliminate what he called â€Å"special risks of unfairness† in death penalty cases. Stevens had gone even further three months earlier. In a speech in May to lawyers and ju dges at the Seventh Circuit Bar Association, the 85-year-old leader of the courts liberal bloc said, â€Å"This country would be much better off if we did not have capital punishment† (Jost). The death penalty is too inconsistent and unfair to African Americans. The inconsistencies are also shown for people with juveniles and people with mental disabilities. Deserved retribution as punishment presupposes that the offender is fully responsible for his crime. In the United States we currently have several juveniles on death row, yet few of us are prepared to argue that juveniles are always fully responsible for the harms they cause. We also regularly execute offenders who suffer from various forms of incapacitation mental illness, disability, or retardation. If retribution is such a crucial and fundamental consideration in shaping the punishment a convicted criminal deserves, why don’t they use their theory to protest the execution of the young and the abnormal offenders, as they do to demand the execution of adult offenders who are normal by their standards? One is tempted to conclude either that they do not take the consequences of their own theory very seriously or that they are prepared to be widely inconsistent in its applicat ions (Bedau). These examples of inconsistencies in the justice system does not help the families of victims heal from the pain of losing a loved one. Many family members who have lost love ones to murder feel that the death penalty will not heal their wounds nor will it end their pain; the extended process prior to executions can prolong the agony experienced by the family. Funds now being used for the costly process of executions could be used to help families put their lives back together through counseling, restitution, crime victim hotlines, and other services addressing their needs (Death Penalty Focus). At what price should we kill to get things solved? If society is saying that murder is a terrible thing to do, then why do we do the same to punish others? The death penalty should be abolished because there is too much evidence to show that it is inconsistent, unethical and contradicting. Bedau, Hugo A., and Paul G. Cassell, eds. Debating the Death Penatly. Should America Have Capital Punishment? The Experts from Both Sides Make Their Case. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. 29 Oct. 2007. Bordt, Rebecca L. Only Some Are Dead Men Walking: Teaching about Race Discrimination and the Death Penalty . Teaching Sociology 32.4 (2004): 358-73. 20 Oct. 2007 . Facts. Death Penalty Focus. 03 APR 2007. Death Penalty Focus. 3 Dec 2007 . Jost, Kenneth. Death Penalty Controversies. CQ Researcher 15.33 (2005): 785-808. CQ Researcher Online. CQPress. Leithead, Alistair . 2005. 22 Oct. 2007 . Radlet, Michael L., and Ronald L. Akers. Deterrence and the Death Penalty: The Views of the Experts . The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 87.1 (1996): 1-16. 18 Oct.2007. Research Papers on Stanley Tookie Williams - Death Penalty Case StudyCapital PunishmentThe Masque of the Red Death Room meaningsArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)Book Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoThe Fifth HorsemanThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationHip-Hop is ArtEffects of Television Violence on Children

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Summary and Analysis of introduction to the Scarlet letter essays

Summary and Analysis of introduction to the Scarlet letter essays Semi-fictional, this chapter explains how the romance of The Scarlet Letter came to presented as a story to the audience. Having always wanted to be a "literary man," the writer talks about his three-year stint as a Surveyor in the Salem Custom House. Mostly filled with older gentlemen, the workplace was a very political (Whig) environment and charged with Puritan history. After brief character sketches of the personalities in the Custom House, the writer then explains how he came upon a special package among the piles of papers. It contained a red cloth with "A" embroidered in gold thread and a manuscript by Jonathan Pue (the man who once held the writer's job). Finding the story extremely interesting, the author thus retells the story of Hester Prynne from Massachusetts' Puritan history. This section helps to position the voice of the narrator since we are going to hear comments throughout the rest of the novel. It reveals insecurities that the narrator has in pursuing a writing career. When he imagines that his "great-grandsire" Puritan ancestors are looking down on him, saying, "A writer of storybooks! What kind of business in life - what mode of glorifying God, or being serviceable to mankind in his day and generation - may that be? Why the degenerate fellow might as well have been a fiddler!" he dramatizes the anxiety he feels about writing for a living. His religious forebears think that it is a ridiculous profession, not at all useful to elevating God or anything else. Because he feels he has something to prove to his great-grandsires and to history, he wants this chance to show off his literary skills. Hester Prynne's story gives him the perfect opportunity since it does deal with God and piety (although his take on the story is not one his ancestors would be likely to agree with). His ambivalent attitude towards the "patriarchs" appears again when he speaks of a permanent Inspector of the Custom House. Though the man has "n...

Saturday, October 19, 2019

In what ways does Kathryn Bigelow undermine the conventions of action Essay - 1

In what ways does Kathryn Bigelow undermine the conventions of action cinema - Essay Example hall pay special attention to Point Break, as we seek to find out the various ways in which failed to adhere to the conventions of action drama in the drama. To begin, several critics have argued that the cast chosen by Bigelow prohibits the movie to be considered as an action movie. This is attributed to the fact that action movies as that time were expected to manifest pugnacious super-masculinity in the kind of super-muscled stars such as Sylvester Stallone and Arnold Schwarzenegger. Having such characters in an action movie would give the film its ‘action’ status a meaning. However, Bigelow deviated from the norm of action movies and decided to cast Patrick Swayze and Keanu Reeves, both of whom were linked to other roles (Bigelow). For instance, at that time, Reeves was casting as slacker-dude and a boy-man while Swayze was casting as a dancer and oily lover. It is evident that both of them lacked the masculine look that characterized male characters of action movies. Bigelow also centered the movie on extreme sports in in many scenes where she could have incorporated action sequences. In an action movie, one expects to see several scenes of shooting and car-chases. However, in Point Break, the director laid emphasis on skydiving and surfing to provide main action set pieces. It is also worth noting that ‘extreme sports’ as an extension of action movies was unknown as at that time. In this case, it can be considered that the movie did not clearly portray the conventions that are characteristic of action movies. Action movies were also centered towards the notion of police fighting the bad guys and arresting them. However, in Point Break, we see something that is of the contrary to this convention. Johnny while pursuing the â€Å"Ex-Presidents† after their botched robbery, he had clear shot of Reagan, one of the thieves, to the extent that he locked his eyes with him; he failed to collect himself together to shoot; thus, leaving Reagan to escape

Friday, October 18, 2019

Women and Science in the southern African Development Region (SADC) Essay

Women and Science in the southern African Development Region (SADC) - Essay Example Then it discusses how UNESCO and SADC are working constantly to promote women of Southern African regions to get educated with scientific knowledge and play a role in scientific development like other women from developed countries. Women and Science in the southern African Development Region (SADC) Previously, it was very firm believe, especially in Asian countries, that women are inferior to men. They have to look after the daily chores while man is the sole earner and he is the one responsible for every major thing. As time evolved, the perception remained same with man now being an executive and women a secretary, or same in every field. The revolution and change of perception took place by the end of 18th century, when women started contributing in medicine, physics, geography and other fields and this period was referred as ‘the enlightment’. When Salon culture in Europe was changing, there were times when political, economical and social views discussed had opinio ns of women too (Sheffield, 2006) Even now that women graduates are more in number than male, the representation of women in business fields and especially scientific fields is very low. There are two reasons for such low representation. First, women already have too much to cater to that they can’t get into fields that need a lot of work and research. Secondly, even if they want to get in, they don’t get decent post. Marie Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize. She won the similar title, a second noble prize in 1911 for her work on radiation. For those women who don’t follow their passion and end up living the usual lifestyle, she says: â€Å"I have frequently been questioned, especially by women, of how I could reconcile family life with a scientific career. Well, it has not been easy. We must believe that we are gifted for something, and that this thing, at whatever cost, must be attained.† While Carl Friedrich Gauss, famous for his Gaussian m ethod and other mathematical applications, talks about women not getting reputable posts in scientific field and motivates them by saying: â€Å"The enchanting charms of this sublime science reveal only to those who have the courage to go deeply into it. But when a woman, who because of her sex and our prejudices encounters infinitely more obstacles that a man in familiarizing herself with complicated problems, succeeds nevertheless in surmounting these obstacles and penetrating the most obscure parts of them, without doubt she must have the noblest courage, quite extraordinary talents and superior genius.† (Ogilvie, 2004) Since 18th century, many women have followed their passion in developing and extending the scientific borders. 19th century was an amateur period with few noticeable names while 20th century included significant work by Marie Curie and Lise Meitner (discovery of nuclear fission). There work set basics for further research. Inclusion of women in scientific f ield was further made possible by efforts of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization) and by SADC (Southern African Development Community) which will be discussed below. (Marelene F. Rayner-Canham, 1997). UNESCO's Recommendations about "Women and Science" Although women have excelled in business fields, there still remain many where they are not given equal rights such as aerospace and flying, engineering and scientific research. Science is a field full of ideas and innovation and leaving this highly capable gender behind means losing high potential and ideas that can change the world. Therefore, gender equality and representation of women in scientific field is very important. Although different countries are giving attention to this issue, UNESCO formally organized the World Science Conference in 1999

Discrimination, or Not Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Discrimination, or Not - Assignment Example Soon after, she filed charge against Hosanna-Tabor with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) appealing against the discrimination of employment along with violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (Supreme Court of the United States, 2011). In this regard, it is justifiable for Perich to file legal case as she was being called and selected as a ‘commissioned minister’ in Hosanna-Tabor. Moreover, rescinding Perich’s call and sending termination letter on the ground of â€Å"threating to take legal action† due to the discrimination can also be considered as a major factor, which can lead Perich to take adequate lawful steps against Hosanna-Tabor (Cornell University Law School, 2012). With reference to the scenario of the case, the suit made by Perich was barred with respect to the legal policies of the First Amendment as it defines that â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances† (Cornell University Law School, n.d.). In this context, the district court has barred the allegation of Perich against Hosanna-Tabor. Moreover, the Establishments and Free Exercise Clauses underneath the First Amendments also confer the ability of the church to choose its own ministers from the perspective of disputes associated with the church’s possessions. Correspondingly, Hosanna-Tabor can also bring in relevant legal claims against EEOC in the ground of the provisions considered by the constitutional law (Pew Research Center, 2014). With reference to the case scenario, it has been recognized that the rescinding of call along with terminating Perich on the ground of ‘threatening to take legal action’ duly ascertain an unjustifiable decision of Hosanna-Tabor. The decision of the school in this

The Overcoat - Nikolai Gogol Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Overcoat - Nikolai Gogol - Essay Example The portrayal of the protagonist supports the idea that environmental oppression impacts the individual, which may result in the formation of deviant behavioral patterns. Early in the work, the protagonist’s appearance is describes as ordinary and rather sallow, stating â€Å"There is nothing we can do about [the protagonist appearance], it is all the fault of the St. Petersburg climate† (Gogol 234). While this statement at surface value seems to refer to the weather, it closely parallels the bureaucratic climate that, much like the weather, is a large and dismal force that the protagonist feels powerless to alter. Even the name of the character, Akaky Akakyevich, closely resembles the Russian term ‘okakat’ meaning to smear with excrement, or the term ‘caca’, which is of Greek origin but refers to excrement in many modern languages (Paul 1). A parallel is drawn between the oppression of the bureaucratic system, wherein a designated rank oppress es societal classes, and the oppression of the individual by his personal designation, in this case the character’s given name. This is supported by in the text by statements such as â€Å"with us, rank is something that must be stated before anything else†, highlighting the oppressive qualities of personal designations, such as rank (Gogol 234). Oppression on many levels shapes the traits of the protagonist, suggesting that environmental influences are responsible for future deviant behavior. The protagonist at first negotiates a reality filled with oppression with acceptance; however, when his expectations are made higher by the prospect of a new overcoat, symbolic of a rise in the societal hierarchy, the character develops deviant personality traits, ultimately leading to his death and the wrath of his angry spirit. The author describes the Very Important Person as a character that

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Research paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Research Paper Example Computers manufactured with the ultimate objective of green conservation are manufactured in a way that reduces the energy used and produced and the emission to the atmosphere (Young 230). As previously mentioned, green cpomputing also refers to the practice of manufacturing computing equipment that will increase the efficiency of the machine. This is done by manufacturing smaller computers that use less energy, has more integration of it parts, uses easily disposable parts and emits less transmission. The central processing units that conform to green computing standards are smaller, faster and more energy efficient that older computers. As already mentioned, the ultimate goal of green computing is energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. The process of green computing benefits the environment in three main ways (Young 234). The first way is that less emissions are made to the environment from the hardware used, which is achieved by using material that do not emit harmful substances. The second benefit to the environment is that the products from green computing can be disposed of safely to the environment. Before the advent of green computing, the waste products from the IT field posed serious detriments t the environment. This is because these products were not biodegradable, and the harm caused to the environment was immeasurable. However, with the advent of green computing comes the third benefit, that of biodegradability and sustainability. The products used to manufacture green computing IT solutions can be disposed of without any worry of harmful emissions or releases to the environment. The running of the computers made in green computing standards also benefits the environment. As already mentioned, the goals of green computing is to make products that emit less to the environment, are energy friendly, and use as little resources as possible (Young 234). The green computing process ensures that the machinery used is safe for the environment , in that it releases minimal emissions to the environment and uses minimal energy. This means that the operation of green computing solutions is beneficial to the environment in its operations. One of the most common terms in the conservation field is the carbon footprint, which refers to the total emissions of greenhouse gases and material that an entity makes during its lifetime (Roorda 31). Greenhouse emissions are hard to measure through the lifetime of an entity, so it is measured by considering the carbon dioxide emitted by an entity, either an individual or company or organization. The greenhouse gas equivalent of an individual is measured to determine the carbon footprint of the entity. The reduction of the carbon print in green computing is aimed at one major factor, which is reducing the carbon footprint to zero in machines that comply with green computing requirements (Roorda 131). This is done by ensuring that the IT equipment used uses as little energy as possible, and emits as little carbon dioxide s possible. This ensures that the ecological benefit of green computing is measurable, as defined by the Kyoto Protocol. In 1992, a program was developed to measure the standards of products

Autobiography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Autobiography - Essay Example This lack of parental supervision and guidance led me to fall into the wrong crowd. Although I was constantly bounced within the foster and educational system, I managed to keep my optimism about my future intact. Little did everyone at the community high school and mainstream high schools that I attended know that what they thought were behavioral issues such as acting as the class clown and rudeness towards authority were actually the methods by which I was trying to express my creativity. Having discovered my talent for music and writing helped ease the conflicts within my life and give me a direction. My talents did not go unnoticed in our town as I often find myself invited to perform my original compositions at local hotspots where I am always warmly welcomed and embraced by the audience. I even became a local celebrity in my own right when I was invited to perform at the Senior Center as my performance together with the choral group that I am a member of was covered by and reported by the local paper. All my experiences in life have led me to understand the importance of education and its direct effect on my life and on the life of those around me. I will be the first generation graduate in my family and I hope that my accomplishment over the adversities of life will serve as an inspiration to those around me. I want them to see me as an example of how it is never too late to take charge of your life and accomplish anything that you want to and gain recognition for it. I am looking forward to attending college either at a local or out of town university where I can learn all about the business world alongside the development of my love for music. I believe that business and music can make beautiful music together as a musician such as I must have the knowledge and skill to promote my talents as a business and invest the earnings that I make from my engagements in order to keep me financially secure in the

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The Overcoat - Nikolai Gogol Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Overcoat - Nikolai Gogol - Essay Example The portrayal of the protagonist supports the idea that environmental oppression impacts the individual, which may result in the formation of deviant behavioral patterns. Early in the work, the protagonist’s appearance is describes as ordinary and rather sallow, stating â€Å"There is nothing we can do about [the protagonist appearance], it is all the fault of the St. Petersburg climate† (Gogol 234). While this statement at surface value seems to refer to the weather, it closely parallels the bureaucratic climate that, much like the weather, is a large and dismal force that the protagonist feels powerless to alter. Even the name of the character, Akaky Akakyevich, closely resembles the Russian term ‘okakat’ meaning to smear with excrement, or the term ‘caca’, which is of Greek origin but refers to excrement in many modern languages (Paul 1). A parallel is drawn between the oppression of the bureaucratic system, wherein a designated rank oppress es societal classes, and the oppression of the individual by his personal designation, in this case the character’s given name. This is supported by in the text by statements such as â€Å"with us, rank is something that must be stated before anything else†, highlighting the oppressive qualities of personal designations, such as rank (Gogol 234). Oppression on many levels shapes the traits of the protagonist, suggesting that environmental influences are responsible for future deviant behavior. The protagonist at first negotiates a reality filled with oppression with acceptance; however, when his expectations are made higher by the prospect of a new overcoat, symbolic of a rise in the societal hierarchy, the character develops deviant personality traits, ultimately leading to his death and the wrath of his angry spirit. The author describes the Very Important Person as a character that

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Autobiography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Autobiography - Essay Example This lack of parental supervision and guidance led me to fall into the wrong crowd. Although I was constantly bounced within the foster and educational system, I managed to keep my optimism about my future intact. Little did everyone at the community high school and mainstream high schools that I attended know that what they thought were behavioral issues such as acting as the class clown and rudeness towards authority were actually the methods by which I was trying to express my creativity. Having discovered my talent for music and writing helped ease the conflicts within my life and give me a direction. My talents did not go unnoticed in our town as I often find myself invited to perform my original compositions at local hotspots where I am always warmly welcomed and embraced by the audience. I even became a local celebrity in my own right when I was invited to perform at the Senior Center as my performance together with the choral group that I am a member of was covered by and reported by the local paper. All my experiences in life have led me to understand the importance of education and its direct effect on my life and on the life of those around me. I will be the first generation graduate in my family and I hope that my accomplishment over the adversities of life will serve as an inspiration to those around me. I want them to see me as an example of how it is never too late to take charge of your life and accomplish anything that you want to and gain recognition for it. I am looking forward to attending college either at a local or out of town university where I can learn all about the business world alongside the development of my love for music. I believe that business and music can make beautiful music together as a musician such as I must have the knowledge and skill to promote my talents as a business and invest the earnings that I make from my engagements in order to keep me financially secure in the

Choosing Among Two Aspirant in an Office Essay Example for Free

Choosing Among Two Aspirant in an Office Essay During the work hunting days of the newly graduates and other professionals, there are lots of pressure and competition among the applicants in different offices or jobs that they are applying for. Let us take a closer look between these two candidates in an office, Obama and Hiliary.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Assuming that they are competing for a job in an office of personnel and communication of a corporation, Obama and Hiliary should meet the qualifications identified by the office as requisites before they could be accepted as staff. The office of personnel and communication is also commonly known as human resource department of a company. However, it scopes further networking and creation of press releases and other researches. It is very necessary for a person who is working in that particular department of the corporation to be socialized with different people, first and foremost, her co-workers. It is because in this job, staff will be meeting people from different walks of life. They are to deal and communicate with different networks. And since there could be loads of works in daily basis, one should be efficient enough to finish a one day job of paper works. Obama, is a graduate of a business related course three years ago in a one of the top universities in California. She graduated with honors and a very good scholastic background and affiliations. She has already three years experience from previous work in a non-government organization as training officer. She is very young at an age 23 going to 24. Hiliary, on the other hand, is of the same age of Obama. However, Hiliary graduated without any special commends but also from one of the top universities Los Angeles. She studied there also a business related course and took several extra short courses in psychology. After her graduation she works in a private company as personnel staff, and eventually, after consistent eight months of excellent work, she seats as the assistant head of human resource department of her previous company. And now, these two young ladies are candidates in an office as head of the personnel and communication of the corporation. There have been qualifications that are being specified a while ago. To choose among these two candidates, their educational background, credentials, and their personality could be tested and compared so as to choose the right person to fit the job. Obama, has a better scholastic standing and background as it shows by her honors and awards during her college education, than Hiliary, who graduated with her diploma only, taken into considerations that they both come from top universities in the world. However, Hiliary, as checked in her working experience and from the company where worked, it was found out that she had a very good social skills and was able to deal with top position people in the corporate world down to the most ordinary worker. She was promoted at the very early eight months of her work period as the assistant head of the human resource department. But Obama, was also found a very persevere and dedicated employee. In terms of their personality, both of the two could socialize and work well with different kind s of people. Since they are candidate in work of a head of the personnel and communication of a corporation, the one who deserves the position, must be acquainted enough and familiar enough with the nature of work. In case of Obama, she worked as training officer in her previous company. Meaning, that she could communicate and lead and guide other people in the company and outside the company. Both of the two have already endured the pressure of professional works. However, Hiliary has already her experience of working as assistant head of human resource department, which is very similar to the work that she is applying now.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In selecting for the right position holder in the corporation, these comparisons and contrast could be one of the bases that could be used. Works Cited â€Å"Ethical Office Politics.† (No Date). November 19, 2007

Monday, October 14, 2019

Leukopenia And Leukemia Risk Factors Biology Essay

Leukopenia And Leukemia Risk Factors Biology Essay A clinical condition, known as leukopenia occasionally occurs in which the bone marrow produces very few white blood cells, leaving the body unprotected against many bacteria and other agents that might invade the tissues. Normally, the human body lives in symbiosis with many bacteria, because all the mucous membranes of the body are constantly exposed to large numbers of bacteria. The mouth almost always contains various spirochetal, pneumococcal, and streptococcal bacteria, and these same bacteria are present to a lesser extent in the entire respiratory tract. The distal gastrointestinal tract is especially loaded with colon bacilli. Furthermore, one can always find bacteria on the surfaces of the eyes, urethra, and vagina. Any decrease in the number of white blood cells immediately allows invasion of adjacent tissues by bacteria that are already present. Within 2 days after the bone marrow stops producing white blood cells, ulcers may appear in the mouth and colon, or the person might develop some form of severe respiratory infection. Bacteria from the ulcers rapidly invade surrounding tissues and the blood. Without treatment, death often ensues in less than a week after acute total leukopenia begins. Irradiation of the body by x-rays or gamma rays, or exposure to drugs and chemicals that contain benzene or anthracene nuclei, is likely to cause aplasia of the bone marrow. Indeed, some common drugs, such as chloramphenicol (an antibiotic), thiouracil (used to treat thyrotoxicosis), and even various barbiturate hypnotics, on very rare occasions cause leukopenia, thus setting off the entire infectious sequence of this malady. After moderate irradiation injury to the bone marrow, some stem cells, myeloblasts, and hemocytoblasts may remain undestroyed in the marrow and are capable of regenerating the bone marrow, provided sufficient time is available. A patient properly treated with transfusions, plus antibiotics and other drugs to ward off infection, usually develops enough new bone marrow within weeks to months for blood cell concentrations to return to normal. Leukemia Leukemia is a cancer of one class of white blood cells in the bone marrow, which results in the proliferation of that cell type to the exclusion of other types. Leukemia appears to be a clonal disorder, meaning one abnormal cancerous cell proliferates without control, producing an abnormal group of daughter cells. These cells prevent other blood cells in the bone marrow from developing normally, causing them to accumulate in the marrow. Because of these factors, leukemia is called an accumulation and a clonal disorder. Eventually, leukemic cells take over the bone marrow. This reduces blood levels of all nonleukemic cells, causing the many generalized symptoms of leukemia. Types of Leukemia Leukemia is described as acute or chronic, depending on the suddenness of appearance and how well differentiated the cancerous cells are. The cells of acute leukemia are poorly differentiated, whereas those of chronic leukemia are usually well differentiated. Leukemia is also described based on the proliferating cell type. For instance, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common childhood leukemia, describes a cancer of a primitive lymphocyte cell line. Granulocytic leukemias are leukemias of the eosinophils, neutrophils, or basophils. Leukemia in adults is usually chronic lymphocytic or acute myeloblastic. Long-term survival rates for leukemia depend on the involved cell type, but range to more than 75% for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia, which is a remarkable statistic for what was once a nearly always fatal disease. Risk Factors for Developing Leukemia Risk factors for leukemia include a genetic predisposition coupled with a known or unknown initiator (mutating) event. Siblings of children with leukemia are 2 to 4 times more likely to develop the disease than other children. Certain abnormal chromosomes are seen in a high percentage of patients with leukemia. Likewise, individuals with certain chromosomal abnormalities, including Down syndrome, have an increased risk of developing leukemia. Exposures to radiation, some drugs that depress the bone marrow, and various chemotherapeutic agents have been suggested to increase the risk of leukemia. Environmental agents such as pesticides and certain viral infections also have been implicated. Previous illness with a variety of diseases associated with hematopoiesis (blood cell production) has been shown to increase the risk of leukemia. These diseases include Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, polycythemia vera, sideroblastic anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes. Chronic leukemia may sometimes transform into acute leukemia. Clinical Manifestations Acute leukemia has marked clinical manifestations. Chronic leukemia progresses slowly and may have few symptoms until advanced. Pallor and fatigue from anemia. Frequent infections caused by a decrease in white blood cells. Bleeding and bruising caused by thrombocytopenia and coagulation disorders. Bone pain caused by accumulation of cells in the marrow, which leads to increased pressure and cell death. Unlike growing pains, bone pain related to leukemia is usually progressive. Weight loss caused by poor appetite and increased caloric consumption by neoplastic cells. Lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly caused by leukemic cell infiltration of these lymphoid organs may develop. Central nervous system symptoms may occur. Diagnostic Tools Laboratory findings include alterations in specific blood cell counts, with overall elevation or deficiency in white blood cell count variable, depending on the type of cell affected. Bone marrow tests demonstrate clonal proliferation and blood cell accumulation. Cerebral spinal fluid is examined to rule out central nervous system involvement. Complications Children who survive leukemia have an increased risk of developing a new malignancy later on in life when compared to children who have never had leukemia, most likely related to the aggressiveness of chemotherapeutic (or radiological) regimens. Treatment regimens, including bone marrow transplant, are associated with temporary bone marrow depression, and increase the risk of developing a severe infection that could lead to death. Even with successful treatment and remission, leukemic cells may still persist, suggesting residual disease. Implications for prognosis and cure are unclear. Treatment Multiple drug chemotherapy. Antibiotics to prevent infection. Transfusions of red blood cells and platelets to reverse anemia and prevent bleeding. Bone marrow transplant may successfully treat the disease. Blood products and broad spectrum antibiotics are provided during bone marrow transplant procedures to fight and prevent infection. Immunotherapy, including interferons and other cytokines, is used to improve outcome. Therapy may be more conservative for chronic leukemia. The treatments described earlier may contribute to the symptoms by causing further bone marrow depression, nausea, and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting may be controlled or reduced by pharmacologic and behavioral intervention. Anthocyanins (chemicals with known antioxidant and liver protecting properties) isolated from the plant Hibiscus sabdariffa are being studied as chemopreventive agents in that they cause cancer cell apoptosis (death) in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Anemia Anemia is a condition in which there is a reduced number of red blood cells or decreased concentration of hemoglobin in those cells or both. Anemia is often a manifestation of some disease process or abnormality within the body. Although there are many causes of anemia, the actual mechanism by which the anemia results is generally due to (1) excess loss or destruction of red blood cells and (2) reduced or defective production of red blood cells. Anemias may be classified according to cause or effect on red cell morphology Size changes Normocytic anemia RBC size is unchanged Example: Blood loss anemia Macrocytic anemia RBC size is increased Example: B12/folic acid deficiency anemia Microcytic anemia RBC size is reduced Example: Iron deficiency anemia Color changes (due to altered hemoglobin content) Normochromic Normal hemoglobin concentration Hypochromic Reduced hemoglobin concentration Example: Iron deficiency anemia may be classified as a microcytic, hypochromic anemia as both red blood cell size and hemoglobin content are reduced General manifestations of anemia A major feature of anemia is a reduced capacity for the transport of oxygen to tissues. This reduced oxygen delivery can result in the following: Ischemia Fatigability Breathlessness upon exertion Exercise intolerance Pallor Increased susceptibility to infection Types of anemia Hemolytic anemia Anemia that results from excess destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis). Factors that may cause hemolysis include the following: Autoimmune destruction of red blood cells Certain drugs (example: quinine) or toxins Cancers such as lymphoma and leukemia Rheumatoid arthritis Certain viral infections (parvovirus) Parasitic infections (malaria) Blood loss anemia Anemia that results from acute blood loss. With acute loss of large amounts of blood, shock is the major concern. With chronic loss of smaller amounts of blood, iron deficiency is a chief concern. Causes of acute and chronic blood loss may include the following: Trauma and hemorrhage Malignancy Peptic ulcers Iron-deficiency anemia Iron-deficiency anemia is a major cause of anemia worldwide. It can occur as a result of iron-deficient diets. Vegetarians are at particular risk for iron deficiency as are menstruating or pregnant women due to increased requirement for iron. Iron-deficiency anemia may also result from poor absorption of iron from the intestine or persistent blood loss (e.g., ulcers, neoplasia). Because iron is the functional component of hemoglobin, lack of available iron will result in a decreased hemoglobin synthesis and subsequent impairment of red blood cell oxygen-carrying capacity. Cobalamin-deficiency or folate-deficiency anemia Cobalamin (vitamin B 12) and folic acid are essential nutrients required for DNA synthesis and red cell maturation, respectively. Deficiency of these nutrients will lead to the formation of red blood cells that are of abnormal shape with shortened life spans due to weakened cell membranes. One important cause of vitamin B 12 deficiency is pernicious anemia that results from a lack of intrinsic factor production by the gastric mucosa. Intrinsic factor is required for normal absorption of vitamin B 12 from the intestine. Any intestinal abnormalities (e.g., neoplasia, inflammation) that interfere with the production of intrinsic factor can lead to vitamin B 12 deficiency. Folic acid deficiency most commonly results from poor diet, malnutrition or intestinal malabsorption. Inherited anemia Anemia may also result from genetic defects in red blood cell structure or function. Two common genetic disorders of erythrocytes are sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. Both of these disorders result from abnormal or absent genes for the production of hemoglobin. Sickle cell disease Sickle cell disease is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production. In the United States the highest prevalence of sickle cell disease is in blacks with a reported incidence of approximately 1 in 500 births. Sickle cell disease has several patterns of inheritance that determine the severity of the disease in afflicted individuals. In the homozygous form of the disease, most of the hemoglobin formed is defective and the clinical presentation is most severe. With the heterozygous form of the disease, less than half of the red cell hemoglobin is affected and the presentation is significantly milder. Individuals may also inherit the sickle cell trait and be carriers of the defective hemoglobin gene without significant clinical manifestations. Manifestations of sickle cell disease: The abnormal hemoglobin formed in sickle cell disease results from a substitution mutation of a single amino acid. This mutation causes the deoxygenated hemoglobin to clump and become abnormally rigid. The rigidity of the defective hemoglobin deforms the pliable red blood cell membrane and causes erythrocytes to take on sickled or half-moon appearance. The degree of sickling that occurs is determined by the amount of abnormal hemoglobin within the red blood cell and only occurs when the abnormal hemoglobin is deoxygenated. As a result of their elongated shape and rigidity, affected blood cells do not pass easily through narrow blood vessels. Hemolysis of sickled red blood cells is also common. The spleen is a major site of red cell hemolysis since the blood vessels found within this organ are narrow and convoluted. As a result of the sluggish blood flow, many tissues and organs of the body are eventually affected by this disorder. Specific manifestations may include the following: Impaired oxygen-carrying capacity resulting in fatigue, pallor Occlusion of blood vessels leading to ischemia, hypoxia, pain Organ damage Splenomegaly due to increased destruction of red blood cells in this organ Jaundice as a result of increased amounts of hemoglobin released into circulation Increased risk of infection and possible septicemia due to stagnation of blood Thalassemia Thalassemia is a genetic disorder characterized by absent or defective production of hemoglobin ÃŽÂ ± or ÃŽÂ ² chains. As with sickle cell anemia, afflicted individuals may be heterozygous for the trait and have a milder presentation of the disease or homozygous and have a more severe form of the disorder. The ÃŽÂ ² form of thalassemia (defective formation of ÃŽÂ ² hemoglobin chains) is most common in individuals from Mediterranean populations, whereas the ÃŽÂ ± form of thalassemia (defective formation of ÃŽÂ ± hemoglobin chains) occurs mostly in Asians. Both the ÃŽÂ ± and ÃŽÂ ² forms of thalassemia are common in blacks. Manifestations of thalassemia In heterozygous individuals enough normal hemoglobin is usually synthesized to prevent significant anemia. In these individuals symptoms of anemia may appear only with exercise or physiologic stress. Homozygous individuals are often dependent on frequent transfusions to treat the resulting severe anemia. Children affected with the homozygous form may suffer severe growth retardation. The widespread hypoxia that can result from impaired oxygen-carrying capacity leads to erythropoietin-induced increases in hematopoiesis that can eventually affect the structure of the long bones. Severe anemia may also lead to congestive heart failure and marked hepatosplenomegaly. Excessive hemolysis of red blood cells may occur in severe forms of the disease due to overproduction of the normal hemoglobin subunit. Iron deposits from increased absorption and frequent transfusions may injure the liver and heart as well. Treatment of sickle cell anemia and thalassemia Individuals with inherited anemia should avoid physiologic stresses that might exacerbate hypoxia. Infections should be avoided and promptly treated if they occur to prevent a possible hypoxic crisis. Proper immunizations and vaccinations should be administered to lessen the chance of infection. Frequent transfusions of normal erythrocytes are commonly used in individuals with severe forms of inherited anemia during periods of crisis. These individuals are at risk for iron accumulation as well as contracting blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis and HIV from improperly screened blood. Bone marrow transplant may be utilized effectively to cure patients with genetic anemias; however, the procedure carries considerable risk of its own. Aplastic anemia Aplastic anemia results from a lack of red blood cell production by the bone marrow. If erythrocyte stem cell precursors are lacking or destroyed, the process of erythropoiesis will be severely impaired. Aplastic anemia may result from a congenital defect in stem cell production or can be caused by exposure to agents that damage the bone marrow such as Chemicals (organic solvents, heavy metals), radiation, toxins, HIV infection, chemotherapeutic drugs and certain antibiotics (Chloramphenicol). Drug-induced aplastic anemia is usually a dose-dependent phenomenon. The clinical manifestations of aplastic anemia will depend on the extent to which hematopoiesis is impaired. General symptoms of anemia such as pallor, fatigue and lethargy can occur initially. Bleeding in the skin and from the nose, mouth and body orifices may also occur from a lack of platelet production by the abnormal bone marrow. Increased susceptibility to infection is also seen as a result of diminished white blood cell production. The underlying cause of the aplastic anemia needs to be identified and further exposure prevented. Treatment should also include avoidance of physiologic stresses and infection. Transfusions are effective for temporarily improving oxygen-carrying capacity. In severe cases, bone marrow transplant may offer a cure. Polycythemia Polycythemia is a disorder in which the number of red blood cells in circulation is greatly increased. There are two categories of polycythemia: relative and primary. Relative polycythemia results from an increase in the concentration of red blood cells due to a loss of plasma volume. In contrast, primary polycythemia (polycythemia vera) is caused by excessive proliferation of bone marrow stem cells. Polycythemia vera is a rare neoplastic disorder that occurs in men between the ages of 40 and 60. A secondary form of polycythemia may occur from excess erythropoietin production as a physiologic response to hypoxia. Secondary polycythemia may be seen in individuals living at high altitudes, in chronic smokers or in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Manifestations Increased blood volume and viscosity Increased risk of thrombus Occlusion of small blood vessels Hepatosplenomegaly from pooling of blood Impaired blood flow to tissues (ischemia) Treatment Increasing fluid volume in relative polycythemia Periodic removal of blood to reduce viscosity and volume in primary polycythemia Chemotherapy or radiation to suppress activity of bone marrow stem cells in polycythemia vera Thrombocytopenia (Purpura) Thrombocytopenia represents a decrease in the number of circulating platelets (usually less than 100,000/mm3). It can result from decreased platelet production by the bone marrow, increased pooling of platelets in the spleen, or decreased platelet survival caused by immune or nonimmune mechanisms. Dilutional thrombocytopenia can result from massive transfusions because blood stored for more that 24 hours has virtually no platelets. Decreased platelet production can result from suppression or failure of bone marrow function, such as occurs in aplastic anemia, or from replacement of bone marrow by malignant cells, such as occurs in leukemia. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) suppresses the production of megakaryocytes. Radiation therapy and drugs such as those used in the treatment of cancer may suppress bone marrow function and reduce platelet production. There may be normal production of platelets but excessive pooling of platelets in the spleen. The spleen normally sequesters approximately 30% to 40% of the platelets. However, as much as 80% of the platelets can be sequestered when the spleen is enlarged (splenomegaly). Splenomegaly occurs in cirrhosis with portal hypertension and in lymphomas. Decreased platelet survival is an important cause of thrombocytopenia. In many cases, premature destruction of platelets is caused by antiplatelet antibodies or immune complexes. The antibodies can be directed against self-antigens (autoimmunity) or against nonself platelet antigens (from blood transfusions). Autoimmune thrombocytopenias include idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and HIV-associated thrombocytopenias. Decreased platelet survival may also occur as the result of mechanical injury associated with prosthetic heart valves. Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia Some drugs, such as quinine, quinidine, and certain sulfa-containing antibiotics, may induce thrombocytopenia. These drugs act as a hapten and induce antigen-antibody response and formation of immune complexes that cause platelet destruction by complement-mediated lysis. In persons with drug-associated thrombocytopenia, there is a rapid fall in platelet count within 2 to 3 days of resuming use of a drug or 7 or more days (i.e., the time needed to mount an immune response) after starting use of a drug for the first time. The platelet count rises rapidly after the drug use is discontinued. The anticoagulant drug heparin has been increasingly implicated in thrombocytopenia and, paradoxically, in thrombosis. The complications typically occur 5 days after the start of therapy and result from production of heparin-dependent antiplatelet antibodies that cause aggregation of platelets and their removal from the circulation. The antibodies often bind to vessel walls, causing injury and thrombosis. The newer, low-molecular-weight heparin has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of heparin-induced complications compared with the older, high-molecular-weight form of the drug. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, an autoimmune disorder, results in platelet antibody formation and excess destruction of platelets. The IgG antibody binds to two identified membrane glycoproteins while in the circulation. The platelets, which are made more susceptible to phagocytosis because of the antibody, are destroyed in the spleen. Acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is more common in children and usually follows a viral infection. It is characterized by sudden onset of petechiae and purpura and is a self-limited disorder with no treatment. In contrast, the chronic form is usually seen in adults and seldom follows an infection. It is a disease of young people, with a peak incidence between the ages of 20 and 50 years, and is seen twice as often in women as in men. It may be associated with other immune disorders such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or systemic lupus erythematosus. The condition occasionally presents precipitously with signs of bleeding, often into the skin (i.e., purpura and petechiae) or oral mucosa. There is commonly a history of bruising, bleeding from gums, epistaxis (i.e., nosebleeds), and abnormal menstrual bleeding. Because the spleen is the site of platelet destruction, splenic enlargement may occur. Diagnosis usually is based on severe thrombocytopenia (platelet counts Treatment includes the initial use of corticosteroid drugs, often followed by splenectomy and the use of immunosuppressive agents. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TPP) is a combination of thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, signs of vascular occlusion, fever, and neurologic abnormalities. The onset is abrupt, and the outcome may be fatal. Widespread vascular occlusions consist of thrombi in arterioles and capillaries of many organs, including the heart, brain, and kidneys. Erythrocytes become fragmented as they circulate through the partly occluded vessels and cause the hemolytic anemia. The clinical manifestations include purpura and petechiae and neurologic symptoms ranging from headache to seizures and altered consciousness. Although TTP may have diverse causes, the initiating event seems to be widespread endothelial damage and activation of intravascular thrombosis. Toxins produced by certain strains of Escherichia coli (e.g., E. coli O157:H7) are a trigger for endothelial damage and an associated condition called the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Treatment for TTP includes plasmapheresis, a procedure that involves removal of plasma from withdrawn blood and replacement with fresh-frozen plasma. The treatment is continued until remission occurs. With plasmapheresis treatment, there is a complete recovery in 80% to 90% of cases. Fibrinogen Deficiency Factor I (or fibrinogen) deficiency is a very rare inherited disorder with complications that vary with the severity of the disorder. It is not well known, even among health professionals. Discovery Factor I deficiency was described for the first time in 1920 by Fritz Rabe and Eugene Salomon. These two German physicians are credited with discovering the disorder. They studied the case of a 9-year-old boy who presented unexplained bleeding problems from birth. Blood tests finally demonstrated the absence of fibrinogen in the childs blood. His parents were first cousins, but they showed no bleeding problems. The two researchers established that it was an inherited disorder often found in subjects whose parents were blood relatives. Since then, knowledge about the condition has advanced considerably. What is Fibrinogen? Fibrinogen, also called Factor I, is a blood plasma protein produced by the liver that plays an important role in blood coagulation. Blood coagulation is a process in which several components of the blood form a clot. When blood escapes from a rupture in a blood vessel, coagulation is triggered. Several proteins, called coagulation factors, go into action to produce thrombin. The thrombin then converts fibrinogen to fibrin. Fibrin produced from fibrinogen is the main protein in a blood clot. It surrounds the cells in the blood and plasma and helps form the clot. The resulting clot, which is stabilized by Factor XIII, remains intact from 10 to 14 days, the time required for healing to take place. When there is a problem with fibrinogen, i.e., either it is missing or it does not function properly, the clot has difficulty forming. This can result in hemorrhaging or thrombosis. The normal volume of fibrinogen in the blood is from 2 to 4 g/l (grams/litre). The amount of fibrinogen in blood can be measured from a blood sample. The following diagram was devised by a Toronto laboratory technician. It shows the stages in clot formation in a way that makes it easier to understand the theoretical notions explained above. Types of Fibrinogen Deficiency There are three types of deficiency: Afibrinogenemia: (absence of fibrinogen) In this type of factor I deficiency, there is a complete absence of fibrinogen. The fibrinogen level is Hypofibrinogenemia (lower than normal level) Dysfibrinogenemia (improper functioning) Transmission of Fibrinogen Deficiency Fibrinogen deficiency is a very rare inherited bleeding disorder. It is transmitted from parent to child at conception. The disorder is caused by an abnormal gene. It affects both men and women, as well as people of all races and ethnic origins. Every cell of the body contains chromosomes. A chromosome is a long chain of a substance called DNA. DNA is organized in 30,000 units: these are called genes. The genes determine physical characteristics, such as eye colour. In the case of fibrinogen deficiency, one of the genes involved is defective. The defective gene in fibrinogen deficiency is located on a chromosome that is not responsible for the childs sex (autosomal). As a result, both girls and boys can be affected equally. Afibrinogenemia (absence of fibrinogen) This is a recessive disorder, which means that both parents must be carriers. In order for a person to inherit fibrinogen deficiency, he must receive two defective genes, one from the mother and the other from the father. A carrier is a person who has only one of the two defective genes, but is not affected by the disorder: the second gene enables just enough fibrinogen to be made for good coagulation. The fibrinogen level will be lower than normal, but there will be no symptoms of the disorder. Hypofibrinogenemia and dysfibrinogenemia These are inherited disorders that can be either dominant or recessive. Dominant means that a single parent can transmit the disorder if he or she is a carrier. Recessive means that both parents must be carriers of the disorder in order to transmit it. Symptoms Afibrinogenemia (absence of fibrinogen) In congenital afibrinogenemia (fibrinogen level Other types of bleeding have been described: bruises bleeding from the gums epistaxis (nosebleeds) gastrointestinal hemorrhage genito-urinary hemorrhage intra-cranial hemorrhage rupture of the spleen and hemorrhage in the spleen About 20% of those suffering from afibrinogenemia present hemarthroses (bleeding in the joints). Because of this particular feature, the disorder may be confused with hemophilia A or B. Hypofibrinogenemia (lower than normal level) Bleeding in hypofibrinogenemia is much like what is seen in afibrinogenemia. It can be more or less serious, depending on fibrinogen levels, which can vary from 0.2 to 0.8 g/L of plasma. The higher the fibrinogen level, the less bleeding. The lower the fibrinogen level, the more bleeding. Dysfibrinogenemia (improper functioning) In dysfibrinogenemia, the quantity of fibrinogen is normal, which means between 2 and 4 g/L. Bleeding can vary depending on how the fibrinogen is functioning. Bleeding may: be absent (no symptoms) show a tendency toward hemorrhage (as described in afibrinogenemia) show a tendency toward thrombosis How to Recognize Bleeding It is strongly recommended that people who suffer from afibrinogenemia or severe hypofibrinogenemia learn to recognize the signs and symptoms of bleeding that could threaten their lives or the integrity of a limb, so they can react adequately and in a reasonable time. The information below describes the main types of bleeding that may occur in someone with a coagulation disorder. Bleeding that affects the head, neck, thorax (chest) or abdomen can be life-threatening and may require immediate medical attention. Bear in mind that this kind of bleeding can occur either following an injury or spontaneously (without injury). Head The brain, which is protected by the skull, controls all bodily functions that are essential to life. Bleeding in the brain is very serious. Signs and symptoms: Heada